How NDD affects measured IQ
- Lowers Performance component of IQ score
- Irregular eye movements lower reading performance
- Fine motor effects slow writing, marking answer “bubbles”
- Distortions, inaccuracies from spatial difficulties
- Anxiety from time limits, “Will I be able to finish on time?”
How IQ affects NDD symptoms
- High IQ, gifted students
- Beliefs lead to denial, rationalizing NDD symptoms
- “Gifted students can’t have reading or learning problems”
- Able to override physical symptoms, appear functional
- Good reading comprehension despite poor eye tracking
- “Symptom override” interferes with attention, energy level
Learning Styles, Preferred Learning Pathways
- Visual – learns best with visual content & reinforcement
- Auditory – achieves maximum retention by hearing
- Kinesthetic – needs “hands on”, movement to learn
When forced to learn with a less preferred pathway, retention and attention suffer, fatigue may result. Examples: Visual student is given complex oral instructions; Auditory student shown slides, diagrams, no verbal explanation; Kinesthetic student must sit still, listen to details for woodworking project.
Introversion, Extroversion – Myers - Briggs
- Introverts – response to NDD symptoms
Experience more physical symptoms, motion sickness, headaches, fatigue. Increase study time, work harder. Can maintain adequate grades through increased work. Recognize problems with comprehension, attention. Require greater time for homework compared to peers. More prone to depression, reduced socializing with stress.
- Extroverts – response to NDD symptoms
Much milder NDD symptoms – headaches, motion sickness. Low frustration tolerance, impatient, will default to socializing. Seen as irresponsible, uncaring about grades. Blame others, teachers, environment, for poor performance. Deny attention, comprehension problems; fault material for being boring, not relevant. Become more impulsive, scattered when under stress.